Mrs. Oz's Late Antiquity, Early Christian, Byzantine

  TEST SCHEDULED FOR THURSDAY, 1/26. It will cover Content Area 7 (West & Central Asia) & Content Area 3 (Late Antiquity [Early Christian], Byzantine, Early Medieval, & Romanesque Art)

- Remember, all image sets, handouts, lecture PowerPoints and assignments are available in Google Drive.

  Early Europe & Colonial Americas - Khan Academy

    

    

  

Key Ideas
  *** LATE ANTIQUITY ***  
* Note: The style of early Christian works is described as late Roman or of late antiquity. Early Christianity is not the style of the works itself- just subject matter.
* No known artworks before 3rd century
* Christianity starts as an underground religion, as the pagan religion of the Romans was still the majority.
* Earliest works can be found in catacombs or on sarcophagi
* Architecture: mostly basilican or centrally planned buildings
* Founded by Jesus Christ in the early 1st century
* Early leaders/popes were martyred such as St. Peter
* Early Christians were persecuted by the Roman Empire but given restitution of property in 313 with the Edict of Milan.
* Constantine is the single most advocator for the Christian faith, often favoring them in political positions and patronizing religious buildings. He was officially converted on his death bed. 
* Christians bury their dead because it resembles the burial of Jesus Christ. Under Rome are hundreds of miles of catacombs where Christians, Jews, and pagans are buried (cheaper too).
* Christianity, Judaism, and Islam worship the same deity, the God of Abraham.
--- Christian (Bible): believe that Jesus was the son of God and will judge again
--- Jewish (Torah): believe that they are the chosen people and wait for the Messiah (anointed one)
--- Muslim (Quran): believe that Jesus was a prophet like Mohammad, not the son of God.


*** BYZANTINE ***
* Rome in the Eastern Empire, capital named Constantinople. Remained the epicenter until 1453 when the Ottoman Turks took over. 
* Complicated history for Hagia Sophia, or Church of the "Holy Wisdom"
* First time we see a dome that sits on 4 arches or "pendentives"
* Mosaics are intended to publicize and codify Christianity
* Figures are represented and formal, frontal, flat, and floating. Usually tall, slim with slim faces and long noses. Very little movement is depicted.
* Emperor Justinian is a major patron for the arts including Hagia Sophia
* Western Roman Empire fell in 476 when Romulus was overthrown by a Germanic leader, Odacer. 
* Eastern Roman Empire lasted about a thousand years longer. It fell in 1453 when the Ottoman Turks took over.


 
Student Resources
PowerPoint - Key Ideas - Artworks List - Vocabulary - Q card Images
  *** LATE ANTIQUITY ***
Christian symbols worksheet (in Google Drive)
* YouTube video: Crash Course: Christianity
* YouTube video: The Face - Jesus in Art
* YouTube video: Making Manuscripts
* YouTube video: Santa Sabina
Constantine and why he moved the capital
Who was Jesus? by BBC (video)
Jesus Christ by Biography.com
Santa Costanza (sacred destination)


*** BYZANTINE ***
PowerPoint - Key Ideas - Artworks List - Vocabulary - Q card Images
Map of Rome in the west and east - Byzantine Timeline (in Google Drive)  
* YouTube: Crash Course - Byzantine Empire
* YouTube: Emperor Justinian
* SmartHistory: San Vitale and mosaics
* Star Alliance: Hagia Sophia
8 Reasons the Roman Empire Fell 

*** BOTH LATE ANTIQUITY & BYZANTINE *** 
* Goodbye Art Academy - Early Christian & Byzantine Art
* YouTube Videos: Mary McConnell - Late antiquity and early Byzantine, Early Christian ArtByzantine Art 2, Christian art 3a, Christian art 3b 
* Visit the The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline for a walk through history: Medieval Art & Byzantine Art.
PRACTICE QUIZZES: Early Christian Art & Byzantine Art

Artwork List
  LATE ANTIQUITY
Catacomb of Priscilla: Orant fresco, Good Shepherd fresco, Christ as the Good Shepherd mosaic
Santa Sabina (basilica plan)
Santa Costanza (central plan)


  BYZANTINE
Hagia Sophia
San Vitale: Justinian and Attendants & Theodora and Attendants
Vienna Genesis
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child b/w Saints Theodore and George 


 
Vocabulary 
ambulatory
apse
atrium
basilica plan (axial plan)
catacomb
central plan
clerestory
coffer
cubical
Gospels
loculi
lunette
narthex
nave
Orant figure
spolia
transept
cathedral
chalice
codex
continuous narrative
Eucharist
Genesis
Icon
Iconostasis
mosaic
paten
pendentive
squinch
Theotokos

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Thank you so much to Lynn Wilkinson, Mary McConnell, Valerie Park and Martha Kunz for all their quidance and resources.

NEXT UP - MEDIEVAL, ROMANESQUE, & GOTHIC.

BACK TO CONTENT AREA 3 - EARLY EUROPE & COLONIAL AMERICAS.