Mrs. Oz's APAH - Medieval, Romanesque, & Gothic

  TEST SCHEDULED FOR THURSDAY, 1/26. It will cover Content Area 7 (West & Central Asia) & Content Area 3 (Late Antiquity [Early Christian], Byzantine, Early Medieval, & Romanesque Art)

- Remember, all image sets, handouts, lecture PowerPoints and assignments are available in Google Drive.

  Early Europe & Colonial Americas - Khan Academy

  

KEY PERIODS
 
Merovingian: 600
Carolingian: 800
Ottonian: 1000

 

 
Key Ideas
  * No particular style for Medieval art: classical, geometric, and natural designs.
* Medieval painting and sculpture mostly avoids naturalistic depictions.
* Information about history and techniques are lost such as technological advances and secrets to architecture.
* The Vikings were an aggressive culture that succeeded in oceanic navigation and boat building. They invaded the British Isles and colonized parts of France. They were officially Christianized in the 11th c. 
* "Dark Ages" weren't so dark - many innovations.
* Monasteries were the principal centers of learning and illuminated manuscript creation. Illustrations allowed for creativity and interpretation.
* Hiberno-Saxons refers to the art of the British Isles (also known as insular art).

 
Student Resources
PowerPoint - Key Ideas - Artworks List - Vocabulary - Q card Images
Jesus' life in Medieval Art (in Google Drive Folder)
  * YouTube: Crash Course - Dark Ages
* YouTube: Bernward's Doors
* YouTube: Carolinigian and Ottonian art & Medieval Culture
Vikings on History.com
Merovingian Art by Britannica
HistoryToday on Scriptoriums
More on Illuminated Manuscripts
Trinity College Dublin: Book of Kells
UNESCO: Saint Michael's church at Hildesheim
Charlemagne and his Renaissance  
  * Goodbye Art Academy - Medieval Art in Europe
* YouTube Videos: Mary McConnell - Late antiquity and early Byzantine, Early Christian ArtByzantine Art 2, Christian art 3a, Christian art 3b 
* Visit the The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline for a walk through history: Medieval Art 
PRACTICE QUIZ:
Early Medieval Art

Artwork List
  Looped fibulae
The Book of Lindisfarne
 - Cross page
 - Saint Luke portrait
 - Incipit page
Palatine Chapel

 
  
Vocabulary 
chasing (ornamenting metal using a hammer)
cloisonne
codex (pl. codices)
fibula (pl. fibulae)
gospels
horror vacui
parchment (vellum)
scriptorium
  zoomorphic

 

  

Key Ideas
  * Romanesque is a revitalization of large-scale architecture and sculpture because of Pilgrimages.
* Churches develop their apse to accommodate large crowds of pilgrims (larger naves, double aisles, radiating chapels)
* Church portal sculptures stress themes of the Last Judgement and the need for salvation.
* Manuscript painting and weaving flourish as art forms.


10 Characteristics of the Romanesque style (Matt Curess)
* First international style since the Roman Empire (Germany, Normandy, England, Tuscany)
* Competition for the largest church (Pisa Cathedral)
* Mansonry (no concrete)
* East end of church is the religious focal point for services
* Portals act as a "billboard" for elements of faith (The Last Judgement)
* Cruciform plans, church as a metaphor for heaven
* Plans/elevation based on basilican forms
* Bays divide the nave into compartments
* Rounded arches are the norm
* Tripartite division of the elevation continues from earlier periods


 
Student Resources
PowerPoint - Key Ideas - Artworks List - Vocabulary - Q card Images
* YouTube: Durham Cathedral
* YouTube: Otis College Cathedrals lecture
* Art in the Western World: Romanesque (to 27:43)
* YouTube: Leaning Tower of Pisa physics
* Heilbrunn Timeline: Romanesque
* Time Magazine: Top 10 Relics
* Bayeux Tapestry
* Goodbye Art Academy - Medieval Art
* YouTube Videos: Mary McConnell - Romanesque churches and the age of pilgrimage
  * Visit the The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline for a walk through history: Romanesque Art.
PRACTICE QUIZ: Romanesque Art 
JUST FOR FUN: The Simpsons & The Bayeux Tapestry

 
Artwork List
  Reliquary of Sainte-Foy
  Tympanum of Sainte-Foy
Church of Sainte-Foy
Bayeux Tapestry


 
Vocabulary 
(many are repeats from previous sections)
ambulatory - apse - arcade - archivolt
bay - cathedral - campanile
embroidery - jamb - Last Judgment
portal - reliquary - rib vault - tapestry
transept - transverse arch - triforium - trumeau
tympanum - voussoir

  

 

 

  

KEY PERIODS
 
Early: 1140
High: 1200
Late: 1250

 
 
Important History
  Early Gothic History
1. Increase in a centralized monarchy. The years 987-1328 were a time of peace in the area around Paris.
2. Sales of charters = Growth and Wealth = Increase of wealth to King because charters connect directly to the King.
3. Agriculture to goods and services
4. Increase in schools: Scholars and teachers transformed western thinking. They changed the way people asked questions and the used logical reasoning.


Late Gothic History
1. Hundred Years' War (France vs. England: 1337-1453) = Decrease in economy and social growth
2. Babylonian Capitvity (1304-1377): French popes moved headquarters to Avignon, France. = Rome started to decay, decrease in maintenance. Strain on schisms of Popes, wasn't resolved until 1409.
3. The Black Death of 1348:  1/4 - 1/3 of the WORLD'S population died! = Architecture was halted, artists depicted the Black Death as a punishment from God = more conservative, reverted to early styles.


 
Key Ideas
  * "Gothic" term coined by the historian Georgia Vasari during the Renaissance. Originially meant to be derogative as he thought the gothic style was crude and ugly.
* Built on ideas from the Romanesque period: the rib vault, the pointed arch, the bay system, and flying buttresses.
* Wanted to reach new heights! Cities competed with each other to build the grandest, tallest church.
* Portals' decoration within the tympanum are project more from the walls: wanted to emphasize verticality.
 
* Illuminated Manuscripts are influenced by the spike in stained glass windows used in Cathedrals. 
  * Perfected the Romanesque style (ribbed vaults, groin vaults, pointed arches, and clerestories.
* The quest for Height and Light is very important. The higher the architecture, the closer to God you'll be. Light is the manifestation of God known as lux nova, new light.
* Sculpture/reliefs are higher in relief and emphasizes the verticality of the architecture.
* Women were no longer considered "handmaidens of the devil". The Cult of the Virgin replaced a previous veneration of Eve, the great sinner.
* Saint Denis is the first fully Gothic structure in France. The ambulatory becomes the new focus. Abbot Suger is credited to creating this new gothic style. He believed the church should be of great beauty. The more grand, the closer to God the worshipper could become.

 
Student Resources
PowerPoint - Key Ideas - Artworks List - Vocabulary - Q card Images
Jesus' life in Medieval Art (in Google Drive Folder)
* YouTube: Goodbye Art Academy - Gothic
* Otis Lecture: Gothic Architecture
   * YouTube video: Gothic vs. Romanesque
* Website: All about St. Denis, France. Definitely worth checking out!
* Incredible Tombs of St. Denis 
   * Website: Visit the official website for the Notre Dame Cathedral in
Paris. Great info on different decorative features and architecture.
* Website: Talk about a thorough explanation of the Chartres  Cathedral and Cathedrals in general!
* Heilbrunn Timeline: Stained glass windows
* Video: Restoring Stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral
NOVA's Gothic Cathedrals: How did they build them?
* YouTube video link: UNESCO Chartres Cathedral Stained glass windows
* YouTube: How to read a gothic cathedral
* YouTube video: UNESCO Amiens Cathedral
* Newly launched website: Mapping Gothic France!
* Cult of the Virgin Thematic Essay
* British Library: Golden Haggadah
* English Parliament: Westminster Hall 
* YouTube: Alhambra Palace
  PRACTICE QUIZ:
Gothic Art

Artwork List
  Chartres Cathedral
   - Royal Portal
   - Stained glass windows
Rottgen Pieta
Moralized Bible
Golden Haggadah
Alhambra Palace

 
  
Vocabulary 
pointed arch     ambulatory     ribbed groin vault     flying buttress
nave arcade     triforium     tribunal gallery     aisle     nave
ambulatory     clerestory     choir     stringcourse     gargoyles
lux nova     pinnacle     crocket     oculus     vault webbing
fan vaulting     quatrefoil/trefoils     Cult of the Virgin     Portal
Apocalypse     chevet     close     compound pier     flying buttress
Haggadah     lancet     Moralized Bible     ogee arch     Passover
pieta     rose window     spire     tracery (bar and plate)
  Rayonnant style     Flamboyant style     Perpendicular style

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Thank you so much to Lynn Wilkinson, Mary McConnell, Valerie Park and Martha Kunz for all their quidance and resources.

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